Report DIVD-2022-00013 - Odd Microsoft CertificateWritten on 08 Dec 2022 by Gerard Janssen
Researchers: Frank Breedijk , Jan Los
Case file: DIVD-2022-00013
January 2022, DIVD researcher Jan Los noticed something peculiar during his investigation into exposed LDAP servers. LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a software protocol that helps users find data about organizations, individuals, files, and devices in a network – whether on the public Internet or on a corporate Intranet.
Jan Los found that secure LDAP servers often use an SSL certificate with the subject www.update.microsoft.com. The SSL certificate for www.update.microsoft.com is not trusted anymore because the chain of trust was broken. In 2012 Microsoft had to regenerate the entire certificate chain. Using Shodan, Jan Los found LDAP servers using this certificate, 357 listening on the LDAP port, and 8180 listening on the HTTPS port. And the number of servers using this certificate was growing. In a second investigation on 27 Feb 2022, Jan Los found 8588 ip-addresses using the certificate.
Did these certificates belong to a criminal infrastructure? And if so, would scanning a criminal organization fit within the objectives of the DIVD? The ethical committee of the DIVD, concluded that ‘the purpose of DIVD is to make the internet more secure, and then identifying a criminal network (and taking it offline) could certainly contribute to increasing security.’
But before further action was taken, another explanation was found for the odd certificates. On the 21st of October, the DIVD consulted the Dutch operational response team (o-irt-o), who hinted that the servers might be used by the VPN service TouchVPN. Using the certificate may allow TouchVPN to bypass content-filtering devices. DIVD’s data seem in accordance with that explanation, and the case was closed. Touch VPN’s trick might be dubious, but the security risk is limited.
|05 Feb 2022||Certificates discovered for first time|
|24 Aug 2022||Case is referred to the ethics committee to see if it fits into the CoC|
|19 Sep 2022||Ethics committee, rules that case is within CoC|
|28 Sep 2022||Ethics committee is asked to reassess the case|
|05 Oct 2022||Ethics committee explains earlier verdict, the case is a go|
|21 Oct 2022||Got a hint from the community|
|23 Oct 2022||Case file published|
|23 Oct 2022||Case closed|